• User Guides
  • Admin User Guide
  • Knowledge Expert (KE) User Guide
  • Subject Matter Expert (SME) User Guide

1. Introduction

1.1 What Is HIRO™?

HIRO™ is an automation tool based on artificial intelligence, created by Arago. It can be used to automate both IT and business processes, enabling companies to utilise time and resources effectively.

Knowledge is taught to HIRO™ in small pieces that contain the context in which they can be used. Then, when a Task is assigned to HIRO™, it will try to solve it by recombining all the knowledge it’s been previously-taught based on the Task context at each given point in time. This means that HIRO™ doesn’t learn in strict workflows like, for example, scripts. Instead, it will create a workflow in real time as it evaluates the Task context and, based on that, decides on the Steps to take on the fly.

Steps selection

1.2 How It Works

HIRO™ integrates into your environment in order to receive Tasks, the same way that you do! For example, these may be in the form of ITSM Tickets that are assigned to you, or submitting of forms, even e-mails. Integration is the first step because these Tasks will now all be "delegated" to HIRO™, and only when HIRO™ can’t solve it, it will come to you.

A simple look at the process is as follows:

  1. Ticket/Task is assigned to you

  2. You briefly check what HIRO™ has already done to detect which steps are missing from the solution

  3. You solve the Ticket manually

  4. You locate the Ticket in HIRO™ Tasklist and press Start Teaching

  5. You explain all the steps you took to HIRO™ Chatbot in natural human language

  6. The chat is converted to code that HIRO™ understands and will use next time to solve the Ticket autonomously

SME workflow

The first few times HIRO™ is delegated a Task, it won’t be able to do anything to solve it, as it hasn’t been taught anything yet. Which means you would have to solve the whole Task manually. Once solved, the Task needs to be located in the HIRO™ Tasklist with a simple search, and you can then begin teaching HIRO™ the steps you took to solve it, so that next time it can do it autonomously.

HIRO Chatbot

Teaching HIRO™ is made simple with the help of a chatbot, which will guide the knowledge transfer by asking questions regarding your Task solution. Once you’ve completed the chat, you can ask your peers to review your solution, and then hand over the full chat conversation to a "Knowledge Expert", who will convert this into a format HIRO™ can understand and apply to future Tasks.

1.3 HIRO™ Modes and Workflow

HIRO™ is always working in the background, whether that be carrying out tasks, or learning how to automate new ones. This can be seen in the two modes HIRO™ works in:

The Automatic Execution Mode

HIRO™ solves tasks automatically by applying pre-existing knowledge.

The Agile Automation Mode

HIRO™ gets taught new knowledge to automate new tasks in an agile manner.

map of the hiro world - simple

Primarily, HIRO™ needs to understand the environment that it will automate in, including which tasks can occur there. These can both be extended as the scope grows, but to start off one should select an end-to-end process to automate, and define which tasks can occur there and their triggers.

Triggers will be defined for each problem type, and an Automation Task will be created in HIRO™ every time a trigger is detected. In the Automatic Execution Mode, HIRO™ tries to solve each task by applying existing knowledge that it will have been taught previously.

If the knowledge present is not sufficient for a specific task, HIRO™ will request to be taught new knowledge in the Agile Automation Mode, so that it can solve the task automatically the next time a similar trigger occurs.

1.4 User Roles

Automating with HIRO™ entails indirectly collaborating with various team members that will each use HIRO™ differently. For this purpose, Arago has created some User Roles to better separate responsibilities, processes for hand-over, and allow for the user interface and training content to be better catered to each role.

1.4.1 HIRO™ Developer (Dev)

A HIRO™ Developer is responsible for creating and configuring the Action Handlers and Connectors planned in the Solution Design phase. They are familiar with the source and target systems, and the available HIRO™ APIs.

1.4.2 Subject Matter Expert (SME)

Experts who will teach HIRO™ how to automate processes they are knowledgeable on through a chat conversation where they answer some questions regarding said processes and tasks within them.

1.4.3 Knowledge Expert (KE)

This role will be given to users who understand how HIRO™ works, and can edit HIRO™'s' automatically generated code to ensure it has translated content from an SME’s chat conversation correctly into KIs.

1.3.5 Admin

This role will be given to users who understand how HIRO™ works, permissions required for each user, and how to configure this using HIRO™ User Interface.

2. Getting Started

HIRO™'s entry point is the Dashboard, where you can see at a glance the status of your HIRO™ instance. At the top we’ve got counters for Tasks that are new, already started, and those pending to be reviewed. Clicking on these will take you to the respective list of Tasks. On the right, we have statistics of your Automation Rate (Tasks received / Tasks automated), and counters for your automated Tasks and knowledge that HIRO™'s been taught.

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The view on the bottom left is where we can see the most recent Tasks that HIRO™ was not able to solve, and those that have been assigned to us for peer review. If you already see the Task you wish to teach here, then you can directly click the button to start teaching, but if not, then you can have a closer look by opening the Task List.

Task List

This is where you will see all the Tasks that HIRO™ could not solve, and their status. If a Task has already been handed over, or another teammate has ownership of the teaching session, you are only able to "visit" the session. So, you will not be able to make any changes. You also won’t be able to make any direct changes to teaching sessions that have been assigned to you for peer review - but you can comment on many things in the session such as the overall solution or a specific reply to a chatbot question regarding a single step.

If you know the exact Task you want to teach to HIRO™, you can search directly for the ID, Task name, or part of it on the top right corner. This view also allows you to filter what shows up in the list by Task type, status, or ownership, in case you would like to manually look for a group of Tasks. Once you’ve located your Task, press "Start Teaching" and this will take you to the Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT) to begin the knowledge transfer.

2.1 Teaching HIRO™

The Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT) is where SMEs can teach HIRO™ how they solved a specific Task. HIRO™ chatbot asks questions to guide the SME through the process of creating a full teaching session containing all the information HIRO™ will need to automate the solution. The first question aims to break down a solution into small Steps, then for each Step a new tab is created where HIRO™ will ask more specific questions and the user can answer them in a more focused "sub-chat".

KAT Description

When answering the first question, the SME must list each step that they took and type done at the end. This is so that HIRO™ knows when the list is complete and can proceed to more detailed questions. The Steps should be worded as an action, rather than recollection ("check disk space" instead of "I checked the disk space…​") Most importantly, it’s natural when listing steps that solved a problem to also list the navigation, such as "Open Outlook…​"" or "Go to website…​" or "Start the Application…​", but when it comes to teaching HIRO™, each Step is defined separately, so the information about where it’s carried out will be explicitly included in each respective step. This means that when listing the Steps they took to solve a Task, an SME needs to beware that they don’t list any step which is only showing navigation.

From here, a new tab will be created for each Step listed and the SME can proceed to the more detailed questions in the "sub-chats". For each question, there’s a button available which shows the best practice that can help provide direction and examples for the SME’s reply.

Question 1

The first question in a sub-chat requests a description of the Step, which would include more detail that the Step title. If the title itself is straight-forward enough, then the SME should re-word it here for the description. This will be helpful as it covers 2 ways of saying the same thing, so when HIRO™ tries to match this Step later to existing knowledge that it can offer for re-use, it will be more likely to correctly match knowledge based on title and description.

The second question refers to the "location" where the action was carried out and how this was determined. It could simply be an application name (such as a specific ERP system, monitoring tool etc.) or a specific server name. The SME must include in their reply the information as to why this is the place to run the certain action. This could be because: it’s the only application that allows this action (e.g. if the action is sending an email, a company would typically use only 1 specific application for it), or because something in the Task hinted at this particular location (e.g. if the user that put up the request belongs to a certain team and this tells the SME that the action necessary needs to be carried out on a different location to usual), or even directly referenced it (e.g. the Task contains the name of the affected server or application).


Next, the SME is asked to describe the reasons why they decided to carry out this Step. This could be as simple as explaining that the Task description contained the words "server" and "unreachable", which made them restart it, or explaining that they sent an email because they found from a previous Step that the user did not exist. So, the timing of the Step is what’s primarily provided here and, along with that, what content from the Task was used for the Step. This is referring to fields in the Task, such as checking whether a user exists by extracting the username from the "email" field in the Task. So, the third question is asking for all the information from the Task that indicated it’s time for this particular action to run, and also all the information that was extracted from the Task and used in the action itself.

Finally, the HIRO™ Chatbot asks the SME to provide the exact details of the action. This can include navigation through an app or exactly which buttons to press (e.g. I clicked on Admin, then opened the edit tab…​etc.), the command itself, when available, and the details as to how the SME realized the action had been successful (e.g. the pop-up showed "Done", the command returned the current free disk space in GB etc).

Once these questions are answered for each Step listed at the beginning, the chatbot will prompt the user for either adding more knowledge, requesting a review from a colleague, or handing the teaching session over to a knowledge expert for coversion.

2.2 Peer Review

2.2.1 Teaching Session Owner

Once a Teaching Session is complete an SME can request a peer review from another colleague as a way of confirming their knowledge and that all details are included. Reviewers can be added by clicking on the icon at the top right of the screen in KAT, and typing in the names of the colleagues who will review and press OK.

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Then, the SME is notified when the review has been completed. The comments added by reviewers will be visible in the screen on the right, and the Teaching Session owner can choose to reply to the reviewer comments, make the suggested changes and resolve the comments, filter, sort,edit, delete etc.

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When a user replies to a comment, they have the option of tagging someone by using the "@" symbol and then their name. This will show up to the person who was tagged as a notification and a comment pending reply. When the owner of a session changes something that a comment by the reviewer is referring to, that comment is then marked as "outdated" and can be filtered out by clicking the icon at the top right, and unchecking the box. Here one can also sort the comments in the order they prefer.

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2.2.2 Reviewer

When a Teaching Session has been assigned to an SME to review, they will receive a notification by HIRO™, and it will appear on their HIRO™ Dashboard. First the number will change at the "Tasks to be Reviewed" counter, and the Teaching Session will also be available at the top of their Task List. Once they click to start, they’re taken to KAT, in "Review Mode". This can be seen at the top right, next to the Teaching Session name, there will be a title "Review Mode", and also the colour scheme is different to that of SME view and Knowledge Expert view.

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This KAT also has a comments pane on the right hand side of the screen. Here, a reviewer can add general comments about the Teaching Session. They can also add comments by clicking on the speech bubble icon wherever available (please see list below) if they wish to be more specific about their review point.

A Reviewer can comment on:

  • The Teaching Session as a whole

  • A specific Step

  • A reply to a chatbot question within a Step definition tab

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A review will show up as complete to the owner as soon as the first comment has been added. This is because the process can be a continuous back and forth as owner and reviewer(s) can reply to each other in the comments. When there’s multiple reviewers, one can also distinguish who they’re referring to by tagging someone in a comment. This can be done simply using the "@" symbol and then their name. This will show up to the person who was tagged as a notification and a comment pending reply.

There are two sides to reviewing a Teaching Session. The first is confirming that the expert knowledge that is being taught to HIRO™ is correct and complete. The second is, ensuring that it’s a good Teaching Session. This can be done with the help of checklists and best practice which can be gained through training and experience.

When the owner of a session changes something that a comment by the reviewer is referring to, that comment is then marked as "outdated" and can be filtered out by clicking the icon at the top right, and unchecking the box. Here one can also sort the comments in the order they prefer.

2.3 HIRO™ Tools for SMEs

2.3.1 HIRO™ Dashboard

The first page we see when accessing HIRO™ is the Dashboard, which presents us with a lot of information regarding the relevant HIRO™ instance. Here we can find the number of Tasks that are still open and need teaching, Tasks that the user has left incomplete, and Tasks that are pending review.

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On the top right it shows the statistics about the instance such as the automation rate, and the number of successfully automated tasks, along with the knowledge that is currently in the system. In the view on the bottom left the is a preview widget of the Tasklist. Here, the SME can see the titles of the most recent Teaching Sessions relevant to them, either because they’re pending review, have already been started by them, or simply are new Tasks that are waiting to be "picked up" by an SME to teach HIRO™ how to solve it.

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By clicking on buttons next to specific teaching session such as ("Review", "Start Teaching", "Continue Teaching" and "View") the SME is directed to the Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT) where they can work with the chatbot to teach HIRO™ new knowledge. If the user prefers a larger view, they can press the "Open Tasklist" button and will be directed to the Tasklist where they can view the full list of Tasks that HIRO™ couldn’t solve autonomously, and can search or filter by status, group, or ownership.

The Dashboard also allows a user with both roles to switch between SME and Knowlge Expert view, simply by changing it on the top right. Next to this is also the selection of HIRO™ instance. An organization may have more than 1 HIRO™ instance at a time, and by clicking the dropdown list at the very top right, a user can switch between both views.

There are 2 types of user roles one can have in Dashboard, based on how they are expected to teach HIRO™:

  • SMEs: who will teach HIRO™ how to automate their tasks using a chatbot

  • Knowledge Expert: who will peer review HIRO™ automatically generated code, which is based on SME chat conversations

so it’s best to check that the right permissions have been granted before continuing. This can also be done by clicking on the Profile icon on the top right, and seeing the User Role in the View Profile section, as shown below.

2.3.2 Tasklist

The Tasklist serves as a type of a "ToDo list" for both SMEs and Knowledge Experts. Depending on the role different filters and views are available. Start Teaching, Start Conversion, View Teaching, Start Review all take the user to the Knowledge Acquisition Tool where they can teach HIRO™ the steps needed to resolve an Automation Task or review a colleague’s Teaching Session.

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The filters in Tasklist are shown all by default. The meaning for each can be found below.

  • My Tasks: All Teaching Sessions with your specific user as Knowledge Owner.

  • My Teams Tasks: All teaching sessions from users within the same organisation.

  • Archived Tasks: All archived tasks. (Archiving can be done using the 3 dots at the end of a row. Once archived they can be restored.)

  • My Review Tasks: All of Tasks that you have requested peer review for.

  • My New Review Tasks: All of Tasks that peers have assigned to you for review and you have note yet begun.

  • New Tasks: All Tasks that HIRO™ wasn’t able to solve and need teaching.

2.3.3 Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT)

The Knowledge Acquisition Tool is how knowledge gets inserted into HIRO™. The SME will do this by talking to a chatbot, so their KAT user interface looks different to that of a Knowledge Expert’s. The SME will be directed to KAT from the Tasklist app, where they will select an Automation Task to teach HIRO™ about, by starting a teaching session. Then they are redirected to the HIRO™ Knowledge Acquisition Tool where they can re-name their teaching session (teaching session typically takes Task name) and begin describing the steps they took to complete the task at hand.

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While the SME is listing the steps they took, KAT creates tabs in the background for each one. This way it allows for sub-chats to be created where each step can be defined in more detail and the teaching session is visually more organised to increase readability.

The chat conversation between HIRO™ and SME will be used to create Knowledge Items which a Knowledge Expert will later review, and input into HIRO™ so that the steps in question can be automated, and carried out by HIRO™ in the future. HIRO™ engages with SMEs to learn how they solved a specific problem. With a predefined and ever-growing vocabulary, HIRO™ Chatbot is able to understand and interpret natural language to generate machine-readable code for the Knowledge Expert to review.

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Once each step has been described thoroughly by answering the chatbot questions, which will also define where and when each step can be applied, KAT offers the SME the option of doing the final check and handing the teaching session over to a Knowledge Expert for automatically generated code review.

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It is important to note that once a teaching session is handed over, it can only be viewed by the SME. The progress bar will provide them with a status on how many steps were created, which Knowledge Expert is working on the conversation and, eventually, how many KIs have been deployed.

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3. Interacting with HIRO™ Chatbot- Retracing Your Steps

3.1 Knowledge Acquisition Through Chat

HIRO™ Chatbot aims to extract information regarding the steps to automate a certain task that it was not able to automate before. Which means that, ideally, each teaching session will begin with a Task that has been "stopped" and was not automatically resolvable by HIRO™.

From each step HIRO™ is trying to learn where it can apply this knowledge (in the case that there’s environment data present which limits its application), and when it can be applied, meaning what information does the task definition need to contain for this step to be carried out. Lastly, HIRO™ tries to extract exactly how it can recreate that specific step when the time comes.

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This information is crucial to the Knowledge Expert as well as HIRO™ Chatbot, as they will review the automatically generated code, and edit when needed, so it’s of great importance that each step is described thoroughly. At the beginning of each 'sub-chat', HIRO™ asks for a description of this step. This allows others to understand what the KI does, at a later point, when it may be suggested for re-use in a different teaching session.

3.2 HIRO™'s Vocabulary - Variables

HIRO™'s own "language" consists of Variables. These are keywords that HIRO™ uses to understand the automation environment and to allow all related components to "communicate" with each other. Because HIRO™ will see Task contents as a list of Variables, it’s best to provide the names of the fields of interest in a ticket or Task, so that HIRO™ can work with the correct content during conversion of natural human language to code.

3.3 HIRO™ Chatbot Principles

For best results in chats-to-code translations, it’s important to keep in mind the below principles when interacting with HIRO™ Chatbot.

  • Base your teaching session on a Task that you have manually resolved This way the knowledge taught is based on experience alone, and knowledge added is required for a certain task that has already been attempted by HIRO™.

  • Teach HIRO™ the exact steps you used to manually resolve the problem - exceptions can be added in separate teaching sessions By doing this you ensure that you follow the "happy-path" logic, where you describe steps and reactions to real outcomes, rather than over-planning a solution imagining each possible outcome of an action and preparing for said outcome.

  • Retrace the steps that you did manually and list them clearly at the start The very first question that HIRO™ Chatbot asks requires the SME to list the steps they took. Each of these steps will be turned into a Knowledge Item, that HIRO™ will use and recombine in various ways. This is why they must be clearly listed so that they can also be re-used by other teaching sessions when they are describing similar steps.

  • Include even the smallest decision or action When teaching a colleague how to do a task, a lot of information can be implied. When it comes to teaching the machine, all information regarding an action and why you decided to take that action, should be explicitly included in your teaching session.

  • Teach HIRO™ in an “atomic” fashion, i.e. every small step of your actions or decisions separately It’s important to cover all the steps, and to break them down in a way that they are atomic and easy to teach. This atomicity is also very important when it comes to knowledge re-usability, as HIRO™ will re-combine knowledge to find a solution, and this is easier and more effective when we have atomic pieces of knowledge.

  • Be precise in your descriptions and do not leave room for wrong interpretations At the end of a teaching session you will be asked to hand over to a Knowledge Expert who will review the automatically generated code. For this to go smoothly they need to fully understand each step, with only your descriptions as input, which is why it’s crucial that you’re thorough and precise.

  • Aim to use the same language HIRO™ already knows (use suggested variables whenever feasible) As you answer questions, HIRO™ tries to map the natural language to its own vocabulary - variables. Reusing existing variables allows HIRO™ to understand the world and combine new and existing knowledge to solve problems.

3.4 How to Describe a Step

A task will be described in Steps, and each of these Steps will be 'translated' into Knowledge Items (KIs), which is what HIRO™ uses to automate. Knowledge is described with the focus of covering 3 aspects:

  • Where?

  • When?

  • What?

These 3 questions can be used to sufficiently describe any action, and the answers to them will be mapped to the structure of a KI, which is:

  • On

  • When

  • Do

One can think of any piece of knowledge as a sentence using the 3 sections of a KI. Examples below:

"On the market, when it’s raining, I open my umbrella to cover my head."

"On the treadmill at the gym, when I’m out of breath, I lower the machine speed"

"On the train, when a ticket inspector comes to my seat, I show my ticket"

Steps of a task or process described to HIRO™ should also follow the same logic. Through the chat prompts, HIRO™ tries to understand where the knowledge being taught is to be applied, under what conditions can it be carried out, and what exactly the action is, and how it can be done.

In HIRO™ however, the entities used to describe the On and Where of a certain piece of knowledge will probably already exist in HIRO™ and will have been described in the form of Variables. So when answering the question "Where can this knowledge be applied?" one should consider the answer in natural language, then look into the suggestions to see what HIRO™ has mapped it to, and if the terms match.

The second part of a KI will define when a certain action can be carried out. This translates into HIRO™ in the form of conditions that variables need to fulfil. For this part, it’s good to keep in mind what information is needed for the action to be carried out (e.g. one needs an email address, email body and subject to send out an email) and what the action’s trigger is (i.e. how did the SME know that it was time to send an email at this point in the process).

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Lastly, the Do section of each step will be where an SME can describe the way in which they carry out the action stated in the title. This description can also include methods, special equipment to be used, and any other peculiarities there may be depending on the step. But most importantly, it’s also good to describe at this point how one defines success for that specific action. A Knowledge Expert will write this knowledge with minimal knowledge of the actual daily tasks of an SME, which is why it’s very important to also share how HIRO™ can check the result it will get each time, for the result interpretation part.

Each Do part of a Knowledge Item should end with result interpretation, which is where HIRO™ 'translates' its findings after each KI run. For this, the SME needs to explain what is cosidered a 'successful' run, and how to interpret that so other knowledge can react to this new changed state.

3.5 Handing Over a Teaching Session

Once each step has been described thoroughly by answering the chatbot questions, which will also define where and when each step can be applied, KAT offers the SME the option of doing the final check and handing the teaching session over to a Knowledge Expert for automatically generated code review.

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It is important to note that once a teaching session is handed over, it can only be viewed by the SME. The progress bar will provide them with a status on how many steps were created, which Knowledge Expert is working on the conversion and, eventually, how many KIs have been deployed.

4. SME USer Interface Manual

4.1 HIRO™ Applications

The HIRO™ User Interface hosts applications that enable users to automate Tasks based on their User Role. From here, a Subject Matter Expert (SME) can navigate to their Tasklist app, and look at the list of Task which are not yet automated.

They can select a Task to start a Teaching Session, which will redirect them to the Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT), where they can teach the HIRO™ Chatbot in natural language what Steps are needed to automate that Task.Once the teaching is complete The next time that the same Task occurs, and this Task needs to be completed again, it will be fully automated!

By clicking on the drop down icon on the top left, a user can switch between apps as needed. For more user-specific details,on the top right there’s a button with a grey smiley, where one can find their profile, documentation, account settings and more.

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4.2 HIRO™ Dashboard - View Profile

As HIRO™ Dashboard is tailored to the user for a more customized and smooth automation experience, it’s important to know which User Role is selected for your profile. This can be seen in the Account Settings view, by clicking the View Profile button. From here, one can see their username, User Role, and can choose to change their password. More details on User Roles can be found here.

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4.3 Tasklist - Main Page

The Tasklist is where an SME can see the Tasks that HIRO™ could not solve automatically, under the Task Name column. Once these tasks are completed manually by the SME, they can then select that Task from the queue and start teaching HIRO™ how to re-create this solution in the future.

The Start Teaching button in the Actions column is only available for Tasks that do not currently belong to anyone. Meaning they haven’t been assigned, and no other user has started a Teaching Session for that Task yet. Once a user clicks this button and begins teaching HIRO™ their username will appear in the Owner column of that specific Task, and no-one else will be able to edit the Teaching Session.

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On the top left one can Filter the Tasks shown in the queue to find their own or their team’s Tasks. Or they can Search for a specific Task by name in the field on the top right.

Once a user has started teaching HIRO™ the Steps to automate a specific task, that Teaching Session belongs to them, and if they were to exit or Close the app while teaching, the button Continue Teaching will appear in the Actions column for that Task.

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A Teaching Session will require listing the Steps it takes to solve a Task, and describing each one in detail. The number of Steps specified will appear on the bottom part of the first circle in the Progress column. The number above it represent how many of those Steps have been fully defined. After all Steps have been fully described, an SME will Hand Over the teaching session to a Knowledge Expert for the agile automation cycle to be complete.

4.4 KAT - Start Teaching the HIRO™ Chatbot

After clicking the "Start Teaching" button on a specific Task, the user is directed to the Knowledge Acquisition Tool (KAT) where HIRO™ Chatbot will ask questions about the Task and how the SME solved it manually. They can choose to give their Teaching Session a name on the top left, so it can be found easier in the future in the automation queue; and on the top right, they can find options such as archiving a conversation, closing the Teaching Session or the app, and here they can also find further details about the Tasklist app.

The first thing the HIRO™ Chatbot will ask in a new Teaching Session is to list the Steps they took. An SME would reply in the message input field at the bottom, and press Enter after each Step or click the Send button. After all the Steps have been specified the SME should type "done" in order to move onto the next part of teaching.

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At the top of the chat view a new tab will appear for each Step, where the user can describe each in more detail by having a "Sub-Chat" conversation with HIRO™, whose questions become a bit more specific here. The main chat conversation takes place in the Description tab, and once the user has finished listing the Steps, they can choose to be redirected to a "sub-chat" either by clicking on the respective tab at the top, or by selecting the Step from the drop down list that HIRO™ Chatbot provides, and pressing Go.

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4.5 KAT - Defining Step in "Sub-chat"

In each "sub-chat" HIRO™ will try and extract details about the Step that is being defined, and this is done in 4 parts. The first part asks the user to describe the Step in more detail. This description should contain as much information as possible, so that when another person might be offered the option of re-using this Step they can understand what it does and how by reading this description.

In the second part of the "sub-chat", HIRO™ tries to understand where this Step could be carried out so the knowledge could be applied. While answering this question, one needs to understand the environment like HIRO™ does, and describe any conditions that it needs to meet, in order for this Step to be successfully completed.

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4.6 KAT - Step Conditions

Each Step needs to be described following the logical flow Where, When, What. How to think about answering the question "Where" is covered in 4.5. In part 3 of the chatbot questions, HIRO™ tries to learn when the Step that’s being defined can be carried out.

In this part, one needs to consider if there are any conditions that need to be fulfilled before this Step can be executed, and describe those conditions as clearly as possible. Information which HIRO™ will use to check the conditions stated here, comes from the Automation Task. So, if the SME has a clear idea of the Task and can look into a Task to see its contents, they can use that information to state more clearly the conditions that need to be met before this Step can be run.

When answering, it’s best to separate the conditions by a semicolon ";" and to list them all in the same line. The user must at this point provide any peculiarities of the Step, and be specific with possible values which would always need to be considered for this Step. As HIRO™ will try to map the user input to Variables that it already knows, if the SME is aware that a certain condition refers to a known Variable, they can save some time from the Variable review by writing the Variable name directly.

4.7 KAT - Completing the Step Definition

So far, a Step’s conditions for where and when it should be carried out have been defined. Now it’s time to describe the Step itself, so, the action that’s being taught to HIRO™ and exactly how it was completed manually.

When replying to this chatbot question, one should always keep in mind that HIRO™'s not just being taught what the SME did manually, but also how HIRO™ can replicate this step. So, they should consider all the details that may be unknown to HIRO™ until this point.

From the list below, not all the questions will fit for all Steps, but they should however be used as guidelines for this part:

  • What did I use to carry out this Step?

  • Are there any restrictions to this Step?

  • How do I define success for this Step? Is it:

    • true/false?

    • specific value?

    • range of values?

  • What does this outcome tell me about my Step?

The above will prove to be very useful to the Knowledge Expert who will review the code that HIRO™ generates automatically from the chat. Once again, it’s important to cover everything for this reply in one line, so when necessary one should use ";" or full stops to separate sections of a reply from one another.

4.8 KAT - Peer Review and Handover

After fully describing the final Step, the user is redirected back to the Description tab, where the Teaching Session originally began. HIRO™ prompts the user to double check their input for completeness, and they are given the option to add more knowledge, request peer review, or hand over to Knowledge Expert. If the user confirms that the knowledge acquisition is complete, they can request a review from colleagues (please see chapter 2.2.) before finally handing this session over to a Knowledge Expert by clicking the "Send to a Knowledge Expert" button.

SME 06

After a Handover, the user and other SMEs, can no longer edit this Teaching Session. HIRO™ automatically generates Knowledge Items (KIs) out of the chat conversation, and it is then the job of the Knowledge Expert to review this knowledge and make sure it’s aligned with the user input.

SME 08

4.9 Tasklist - Completed Teaching Session

A completed Teaching Session that has been handed over to an Knowledge Expert is now shown on the Tasklist as shown below.

SME 03

The details, such as date and owner, are shown below the Task Name upon clicking on it, and the session progress shows the Handover icon highlighted in blue. On the left of the icon one can see the number of Steps that were defined, and on the right of it, the number of KIs written for this Teaching Session. After Handover SMEs can only visit a Teaching Session as it’s no longer possible to edit.